Vaginally use of iButton loggers to measure body temperature in grazing red deer (Cervus elaphus)
When collecting accurate physiological data, it is important to eliminate human interference and have a continuous recording. Particularly important in wild animals, non-invasive methods for measuring body temperature can be useful in monitoring health status and researching environmental and climatic effects. The aim of this study was to describe two methods for automatic recording of body temperature by means of a vaginal device in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Automatic thermal recording devices (iButton) were placed adhered to a vaginal sponge (10 animals, 10 days) and/or CIDR-G (13 animals, 10 days); all females were xylazine sedated first. All devices were successfully recovered and only one of them failed. In all cases, the devices recorded a rhythmic pattern of body temperature, and no major inconveniences were observed, suggesting that the iButton device can be successfully used in cases where continuous body temperature recording is required without any mayor interference caused by the handling itself.
Alvarez Ramírez, L., N.G. Mejía Huerta, and A. Sánchez Cervantes. 2021. Artificial shade effects on behavior and body weight of pregnant grazing red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Veterinary Behaviour, 44:32–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2021.05.007.
Angle, T.C., and R.L. Gillette. 2011. Telemetric measurement of body core temperature in exercising unconditioned Labrador retrievers. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 75:157–9.
Burdick, N.C., J.A. Carroll, J.W. Dailey, R.D. Randel, S.M. Falkenberg, and T.B. Schmidt. 2012. Development of a self-contained, indwelling vaginal temperature probe for use in cattle research. Journal of Thermal Biology, 37:339–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JTHERBIO.2011.10.007.
Burfeind, O., V.S. Suthar, R. Voigtsberger, S. Bonk, and W. Heuwieser. 2014. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology, 82:121–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.THERIOGENOLOGY.2014.03.006.
Chapon, P.-A., N. Bessot, A. Gauthier, S. Besnard, and S. Moussay. 2012. Performance testing of an innovative telemetric temperature sensor in animals. Journal of Thermal Biology, 37:255–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JTHERBIO.2011.08.004.
Davidson, A.J., F. Aujard, B. London, M. Menaker, and G.D. Block. 2003. Thermochron iButtons: An inexpensive method for long-term recording of core body temperature in untethered animals. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 18:430–432. https://doi.org/10.1177/0748730403256066.
De, K., D. Kumar, V.K. Saxena, and S.M.K. Naqvi. 2017. Study of circadian rhythmicity of physiological response and skin temperature of sheep during summer and winter in semi-arid tropical environment. Physiology & Behavior, 169:16–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYSBEH.2016.11.010.
Fleisch, A., S. Werne, F. Heckendorn, S. Hartnack, M. Piechotta, H. Bollwein, R. Thun, and F. Janett. 2012. Comparison of 6-day progestagen treatment with Chronogest ® CR and Eazi-breedTM CIDR ® G intravaginal inserts for estrus synchronization in cyclic ewes. Small Ruminant Research, 107:141–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.05.014.
Godyń, D., P. Herbut, and S. Angrecka. 2019. Measurements of peripheral and deep body temperature in cattle – A review. Journal of Thermal Biology, 79:42–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JTHERBIO.2018.11.011.
Grayson, K.L., and M.E. Dorcas. 2004. Seasonal temperature variation in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Herpetologica, 60:325–336. https://doi.org/10.1655/03-43.
Hartman, C.A., and L.W. Oring. 2006. An inexpensive method for remotely monitoring nest activity. Journal of Field Ornithology, 77:418–424. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2006.00073.x.
Hilmer, S., D. Algar, D. Neck, and E. Schleucher. 2010. Remote sensing of physiological data: Impact of long term captivity on body temperature variation of the feral cat (Felis catus) in Australia, recorded via Thermochron iButtons. Journal of Thermal Biology, 35:205–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JTHERBIO.2010.05.002.
Kinahan, A.A., R. Inge-moller, P.W. Bateman, A. Kotze, and M. Scantlebury. 2007. Body temperature daily rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana). Physiology & Behavior, 92:560–565. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYSBEH.2007.05.001.
Lea, J.M., D.D.O. Niemeyer, M.T. Reed, A.D. Fisher, and D.M. Ferguson. 2008. Development and validation of a simple technique for logging body temperature in free-ranging cattle. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48:741. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA07422.
Lee, Y., J.D. Bok, H.J. Lee, H.G. Lee, D. Kim, I. Lee, S.K. Kang, and Y.J. Choi. 2015. Body temperature monitoring using subcutaneously implanted thermo-loggers from Holstein steers. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 29:299–306. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0353.
Lees, A., J. Lea, H. Salvin, L. Cafe, I. Colditz, C. Lee, A.M. Lees, J.M. Lea, H.E. Salvin, L.M. Cafe, I.G. Colditz, and C. Lee. 2018. Relationship between rectal temperature and vaginal temperature in grazing Bos taurus heifers. Animals, 8:156. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8090156.
Maeder, B., S. Arlt, O. Burfeind, and W. Heuwieser. 2012. Application of Vaginal Temperature Measurement in Bitches. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47:359–361. https://doi.org/10.1111/rda.12100.
Mattiello, S. 2009. Welfare issues of modern deer farming. Italian Journal Animal Science, 8:205–217. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.s1.205.
Munn, A.J., P.S. Barboza, and J. Dehn. 2009. Sensible heat loss from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) feeding in winter: small calves are not at a thermal disadvantage compared with adult cows. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 82:455–67. https://doi.org/10.1086/605400.
Mzilikazi, N., B.G. Lovegrove, and D.O. Ribble. 2002. Exogenous passive heating during torpor arousal in free-ranging rock elephant shrews, Elephantulus myurus. Oecologia, 133:307–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-1052-z.
Polsky, L.B., A.M.L. Madureira, E.L.D. Filho, S. Soriano, A.F. Sica, J.L.M. Vasconcelos, and R.L.A. Cerri. 2017. Association between ambient temperature and humidity, vaginal temperature, and automatic activity monitoring on induced estrus in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 100:8590–8601. https://doi.org/10.3168/JDS.2017-12656.
Reuter, R.R., J.A. Carroll, L.E. Hulbert, J.W. Dailey, and M.L. Galyean. 2010. Technical note: Development of a self-contained, indwelling rectal temperature probe for cattle research. Journal of Animal Science, 88:3291–3295. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3093.
Roznik, E.A., and R.A. Alford. 2012. Does waterproofing Thermochron iButton dataloggers influence temperature readings? Journal of Thermal Biology, 37:260–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JTHERBIO.2012.02.004.
Signer, C., T. Ruf, F. Schober, G. Fluch, T. Paumann, and W. Arnold. 2010. A versatile telemetry system for continuous measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in free-ranging ruminants. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 1:75–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00010.x.
Souza, J.M.G., C.A.A. Torres, A.L.R.S. Maia, F.Z. Brandão, J.H. Bruschi, J.H.M. Viana, E. Oba, and J.F. Fonseca. 2011. Autoclaved, previously used intravaginal progesterone devices induces estrus and ovulation in anestrous Toggenburg goats. Animal Reproduction Science, 129:50–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2011.09.012.
Suthar, V., O. Burfeind, B. Maeder, and W. Heuwieser. 2013. Agreement between rectal and vaginal temperature measured with temperature loggers in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research, 80:240–245. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029913000071.
Taylor, E.N., D.F. DeNardo, and M.A. Malawy. 2004. A comparison between point- and semi-continuous sampling for assessing body temperature in a free-ranging ectotherm. Journal of Thermal Biology, 29:91–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JTHERBIO.2003.11.003.
Vickers, L.A., O. Burfeind, M.A.G. von Keyserlingk, D.M. Veira, D.M. Weary, and W. Heuwieser. 2010. Technical note: Comparison of rectal and vaginal temperatures in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 93:5246–5251. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3388.
Walsh, V.P., and P.R. Wilson. 2002. Sedation and chemical restraint of deer. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 50:228–236. https://doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2002.36318.
Copyright (c) 2023 Lorenzo Alvarez Ramirez, Gabriela Arteaga-Salazar, Alejandra Sánchez-Cervantes
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.