Artificial insemination strategies in cattle: From the conventional to the use of sexed semen
In cattle, traditional or conventional artificial insemination (CAI) not only plays a vital role in the successful establishment of pregnancy, which is a prerequisite for the onset of lactation, but also in accelerating genetic improvement and facilitating distribution. from the semen of genetically superior bulls. The latter has been greatly facilitated by the ability to successfully cryopreserve semen. The management of the thawed semen straw is of vital importance; Thawed semen must be protected from thermal shocks during the process of thawing and deposition in the uterus, which should last between 6 to 8 minutes. Correct AI should occur in the body of the uterus, however seminal deposition in the uterine horns provides only a modest improvement in conception rates. The interval from the onset of estrus to the time of ovulation (ICO) appears to be similar for cows and heifers, being around 28 h, however, there is a large variation (standard deviations from 5 to 6 h) around this time. average. The prevention of postpartum pathologies and adequate nutritional management during the cyclicity of the cow and early pregnancy are key to achieving pregnancy. The incorporation of AI with sexed semen (IAX) for commercial use continues to be a limitation, since pregnancy rates continue to be sub-optimal and its cost is high, therefore, it is only recommended to implement it in farms where its rate of pregnancy with IAC is exceptional and above average.
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