Embryonic signals and placental hormones: molecular bases and potential use for the diagnosis and followup of gestation in farm animals

Keywords: embryo, fetoplacental unit, pregnancyassociated glycoproteins


During early pregnancy, the endocrine function of the embryo and foeto-maternal unit (endometrium and trophectoderm) involves the synthesis of a series of growth factors (e.g. Insuline-like Growth Factors, Epidermal Growth Factor, Transforming Growth Factors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor and Fibroblast Growth Factors) and several steroid (e.g. progesterone, estrogens and prostaglandins) and proteins (e.g. Early Pregnancy Factor, Interferon tau and Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins) hormones. Some of these molecules interfere with the implantation of the embryo and with the establishment of pregnancy and corpus luteum maintenance during gestation. Indeed, pregnancy diagnosis is an important part in reproduction management of ruminants. The pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAG) are synthetized in the rumiant by the mono- and binucleates cells of the trophectoderm. Part of them are released into maternal blood circulation where they can be assayed by RIA and ELISA techniques, as pregnancy diagnosis biomarker. The assay of PAG can also bring very interesting information for researchers working in programs focused on the study of embrionic and fetal moralities, as well as on embryo technology (FIV, clonage) animal nutrition, or infections diseases resulting in pathologies affecting the pregnancy.


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How to Cite
Alvarez-Oxiley, Andrea. 2022. “Embryonic Signals and Placental Hormones: Molecular Bases and Potential Use for the Diagnosis and Followup of Gestation in Farm Animals”. Latin American Archives of Animal Production 30 (3), 155-78. https://doi.org/10.53588/alpa.300302.
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