Detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes infecting dairy heifers in Puerto Rico
The efficacy of the anthelmintic albendazole (ALB), doramectin (DOR) and ivermectin (IVM) were evaluated in Holstein and Holstein crossbreed dairy heifers using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Dairy heifers (n=420; ~6 months of age; BW = 149 ± 39.6 kg) were evaluated in 21 dairy farms. All heifers were required to be on pasture and not have been exposed to anthelmintic treatment for a minimum of 3 months. At each dairy farm, a priori, groups of at least 18 heifers were randomly divided to be treated with IVM, or DOR, or ALB following manufacturer's instructions. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum 7 days before anthelmintic treatment (d-7), at the time of the treatment (d0), and 14 days after treatment (d14). Only heifers that had an average FEC ³ 100 eggs per gram of feces (average of FEC from day d-7 and d0) were considered in the FECRT. The FECRT was determined by the modified McMaster technique. Of the three-anthelmintic used, ALB (n=142) proved to be the most effective (P < 0.0005) with an efficacy of 67.47% ± 8.43. The efficacy of DOR and IVM did not differ (P = 0.8713). While DOR (n = 130) exhibited a efficacy of 25.50% ± 18.00, IVM (n = 148) exhibited a efficacy of -8.13% ± 19.89 due to an increase in FEC after treatment. Dairy farmers should implement integrated methods of nematode control to preserve the effectiveness of currently available anthelmintics.
Anziani, O. S., V. Suárez, A. A. Guglielmone, O. Warnke, H. Grande, and G. C. Coles. 2004. Resistance to benzimidazole and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics in cattle nematodes in Argentina. Vet. Parasitol. 122(4):303–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.05.018
Anziani, O. S., G. Zimmerman, A. A. Guglielmone, R. Vásquez, and V. Suárez. 2001. Avermectin resistance in Cooperia pectinata in cattle in Argentina. Vet. Rec. 149(9): 58-59. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.149.2.58
Barragry, T. B. 1987. A review of the pharmacology and clinical uses of ivermectin. Can. Vet. J. 28(8):512–517.
Bowman, D. 2009. Georgi’s Parasitology for Veterinarians. 9th ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Bricarello, P. A., L. G. Zaros, L. L.Coutinho, R. A. Rocha, F. N. J. Kooyman, E. De Vries, J. R.S. Gonçalves, L. G. Lima, A. V.Pires, and A. F. T. Amarante. 2007. Field study on nematode resistance in Nelore-breed cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 148(3-4): 272–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.06.013
Coles, G.C. (2002). Sustainable use of anthelmintics in grazing animals. Vet. Rec. 151(6):165–169. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.151.6.165
Coles, G.C., C. Bauer, F. H.Borgsteede, S. Geerts, T. R.Klei, M. A.Taylor, and P. J.Waller. 1992. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet. Parasitol. 44(1-2): 35–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4017(92)90141-u.
Coles, G.C., F. Jackson, W. E.Pomroy, R. K., Prichard, Zg. Von Samson-Himmelstjerna, and A. Silvestre. 2006. The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet. Parasitol. 136 (3-4): 167–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.11.019
Cotter, J. L., A. Van Burgel, and R. B. Besier. 2015. Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of beef cattle in south-west Western Australia. Vet. Parasitol. 207(3-4): 276–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.11.019.
Dinaburg, A. G. 1942. The efficiency of the Baermann apparatus in the recovery of larvae of Haemonchus contortus. J. Parasitol. 28(6): 433-440. https://doi.org/10.2307/3272903
Eysker, M. and H. W. Ploeger. 2000. Value of present diagnostic methods for gastrointestinal nematode infections in ruminants. Parasitology. 120(7): 109–119. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182099005752
Familton, A. S., P. Mason, and G. C. Coles. 2001. Anthelmintic-resistant Cooperia species in cattle. Vet. Rec. 149(23): 719–720.
Fiel, C. A., C. A. Saumell, P. E. Steffan, and E. M.Rodríguez. 2002. Resistance of Cooperia to ivermectin treatments in grazing cattle of the Humid Pampa, Argentina. Vet. Parasitol. 97(3): 211–217. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/s0304-4017(01)00407-1.
Gasbarre L. C. 2014. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US. Vet. Parasitol. 204(1-2): 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.017
Gasbarre, L. C., L. L.Smith, J. R. Lichtenfels, P. A. Pilitt. 2004. The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the US. Page 55 in Proc. 49th American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists Conf. Philadelphia, PA.
James, C. E., A. L.Hudson, and M. W. Davey. 2009. Drug resistance mechanisms in helminths: is it survival of the fittest? Trends Parasitol. 25(7): 328–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2009.04.004. Epub 2009 Jun 21.
Martin, R. J., A. P. Robertson, and H. Bjorn. 1997. Target sites of anthelmintics. Parasitology 114(7): 111–124. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182097001029
Mejía, M. E., B. M. Fernández, E. E. Schmidt, and J. Cabaret. 2003. Multispecies and multiple anthelmintic resistance on cattle nematodes in a farm in Argentina: the beginning of high resistance? Vet. Res. 34: 461–467. : https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2003018
Prichard, R. K., C. A. Hall, J. D. Kelly, I. C. A. Martin, and A. D. Donald.1980. The problem of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Aust. Vet. J. 56(5): 239–250. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1980.tb15983.x.
Rivera-Mujica, I. 2009. Effect of anthelmintics over fecal egg counts of gastrointestinal nematodes in replacement heifers in two dairy farms in Puerto Rico. M.S. Thesis. University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.
Soutello, R. G. V., M. C. Z. Seno, and A. F. T. Amarante. 2007. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil. Vet. Parasitol., 148(3-4): 360–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.06.023.
Stromberg, B. E., L. C. Gasbarre, A. Waite, D. T.Bechtol, M. S. Brown, N. A. Robinson, E. J. Olson, and H. Newcomb. 2012. Cooperia punctata: effect on cattle productivity? Vet. Parasitol. 183(3-4): 284–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.030
Sutherland, I. A. and D. M.Leathwick. 2011. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of cattle: a global issue? Trends Parasitol. 27(4):176–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2010.11.008
Taylor, M. A., R. L. Coop, and R. L.Wall. 2007. Veterinary Parasitology. 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing. Oxford, UK.
vanWyk, J. A., J. Cabaret, and L. M. Michael. 2004. Morphological identification of nematode
larvae of small ruminants and cattle simplified. Vet. Parasitol., 119(4): 277–306.
Vidyashankar, A. N., B. M. Hanlon, and R. M. Kaplan. 2012. Statistical and biological considerations in evaluating drug efficacy in equine strongyle parasites using fecal egg count data. Vet. Parasitol. 185(1): 45–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.10.011.
Vidyashankar, A. N., R. M. Kaplan, and S. Chan. 2007. Statistical approach to measure the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment on horse farms. Parasitology 134(14): 2027–2039. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003118200700340X
Winterrowd, C. A., W. E. Pomroy, N. C. Sangster, S. S. Johnson and T. G. Geary. 2003. Benzimidazole-resistant β-tubulin alleles in a population of parasitic nematodes (Cooperia oncophora) of cattle. Vet. Parasitol. 117(3): 161–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.09.001
Copyright (c) 2021 Lorraine López-Soberal, Aníbal Ruiz-Lugo, Melvin Pagán-Morales, Esbal Jiménez-Cabán, Guillermo Ortiz-Colón
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.